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The 1991 CRA, then, held great promise when it responded to the provocation of Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins to address a larger problem—the problem that Francis Vaas identified in 1966. However, the often-invoked canon of statutory construction—start and stop with the text unless it is necessary to go to the legislative history to figure out what an ambiguous text means—has been tossed to the side, and the contextual history of overruling Price Waterhouse has been invoked by normally textualist judges who refuse to believe that Congress actually meant what it wrote. It is upon that sobering reality that we must reflect, even as we celebrate Title VII’s achievements over the last half century.



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