A close reading of the New Testament, though, reveals that there is not one uniform answer to this question. The New Testament does not prescribe one appropriate stance for Christians to take against the civil authorities. Rather, there appear to be alternate (or perhaps various) stances that are permitted, depending on the exigencies of the time and the various circumstances. To explore this thesis, Part I explores biblical texts in Acts-Jude that speak to the relationship between Christians and the civil government, with a particular focus upon Acts 5:28 and Romans 13:1-7. Part II, which is the heart of the Article, provides a modern case study of the use of the two competing biblical themes of submission versus resistance; the South African apartheid regime, and resistance to the same, provide the backdrop. Finally, in the Conclusion we offer some reflections on what modern Christians might learn from the biblical texts and the South African experience.