Sandy Tomasik

Document Type




This Note analyzes the effect that Hurley had on the Spence factors and suggests that the particularized requirement has been lowered. This is the best approach to encouraging speech while balancing other important interests. Part I discusses the development of the freedom of speech, from protecting the spoken and written word to protecting expressive conduct. Part II outlines the different approaches taken by the circuit courts in deciding whether conduct is protected as speech and, in particular, what effect Hurley had on Spence. Part III critically analyzes each of these approaches and concludes that the Eleventh Circuit’s approach is the most sound. Finally, Part IV applies the Second, Third, and Eleventh Circuits’ tests to a district court case in order to illustrate the differences between the approaches and the importance of this problem.



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